Medieval Memoria Online

Description - Memorial Object

Memorial painting with the Virgin and Child and the devotional portrait of Jan Vos ('Exeter Madonna')

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MeMO memorial object ID and name
MeMO memorial object ID 3255
Name Memorial painting with the Virgin and Child and the devotional portrait of Jan Vos ('Exeter Madonna')
Holding institution(s)
Holding institution(s)
  • Berlin, Staatliche Museen
Category
Type Memorial item (physical object)
Classification Single piece (painting)
Short description Painting showing the Virgin and Child with devotional portrait and saint
Remarks about category Single piece: no separation between portrait(s) - main image
General date
General date 1425-1475
Artist(s)
Artist(s)
  • Christus, Petrus
Original institution(s)
Original institution [134] Nieuwlicht, Kartuizers (Bloemendaal) (Nieuwlicht Monastery, Carthusians (Bloemendaal)), Utrecht
Arguments
  • based on research (literature, archival or archaeological research)
Specification Originally located in Carthusian monastery Genadedal (Val-de-Grâce) outside Bruges, later probably transferred to Nieuwlicht
Still in original institution? no
Location inside the institution
In situ?
(Probable) original location
  • in other locations of the institution (such as sacristy, refectory, chapter house etc.)
Argumentation
Related memorial objects in the same institution
Additional remarks (original location)
Additional remarks
Memorial piece
Function
  • liturgical/religious
Specification
Additional remarks The painting was probably meant to serve as an 'Andachtsbild', see Additional remarks at the bottom of this page
Memorial monument or floor slab
Function
Grave findings
Additional remarks
Original function
Change in function
Remarks about function
Name Jan Vos
Specification
Members of the commemorated party
Commemorated person(s)
  • [2571] Jan Vos (male)
Commemorated institution(s)
Relation between commemorated persons not applicable (only one person mentioned/depicted)
Relation specification
Additional remarks
Name Jan Vos
Composition of the commissioning party
  • single person
Specification
Members of the commissioning party
Commissioning person(s)
  • [2571] Jan Vos (male)
Commissioning Institution(s)
Relation between commissioning party and commemorated party The commissioning party was the commemorated party
Relation specification
Additional remarks
Material(s)
  • wood
Specification oil on oak panel
Traces of polychromy?
Reuse of older objects
Dimensions (cm)
Height x width x depth 19 x 14 x 0
Completeness Complete
Condition
Conservation
Technical research
  • infrared reflectography (IRR)
Specification (technical research)
Alterations
Alterations
Specification
Additional remarks
Provenance
Provenance private collection, Brussels (1595); private collection, The Hague (1662); Burleigh House, Stamford, Lincolnshire (1815); private collection, London; auction, London (1888); Staatliche Museen, Berlin (since 1888).
Marks of ownership
Type(s) of mark(s) of ownership
Specification
  • Ainsworth, M.W., Petrus Christus: Renaissance master of Bruges (New York 1994), 72-78, 102-106
  • Scholtens, H.J.J., Jan van Eyck's 'H. Maagd met den Kartuizer' en de Exeter-Madonna te Berlijn, Oud-Holland 55 (1938), 49-62
  • Upton, J.M., Petrus Christus: his Place in Fifteenth-Century Flemish Painting (University Park 1990), 7-19
  • Weijert-Gutman, Rolf de, Schenken, begraven, gedenken. Lekenmemoria in het Utrechtse kartuizerklooster Nieuwlicht (1391-1580) (Utrecht 2015), 176-179
Other documentation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks • Jan Vos was prior of Carthusian monastery Genadedal (Val-de-Grâce) outside Bruges. When, in 1450, Jan Vos was appointed prior of Carthusian monastery Nieuwlicht outside Utrecht, he probably commissioned this painting from Petrus Christus. Given its background, which depicts the townscape of Bruges, the work likely served as a reminder of Vos’ stay in Bruges. • The Frick Collection in New York houses a painting with a devotional portrait of Jan Vos which bears a strong resemblance to this work. This so called 'Rothschild Madonna' - see MeMO Memorial Object ID 921 - is of an earlier date (ca. 1443) and was made by Jan van Eyck. It was located in Genadedal until 1450, when Vos took the painting with him to Utrecht, as is evident from archival records of Nieuwlicht. Like the 'Rothschild Madonna', the 'Exeter Madonna' was probably transferred to Utrecht in 1450. (With thanks to Rolf de Weijert)

Single piece (front) of [3255] Memorial painting with the Virgin and Child and the devotional portrait of Jan Vos ('Exeter Madonna')

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Short description
Short description Virgin and Child with devotional portrait of Jan Vos and St Barbara
Dimensions (cm)
Height x Width x Depth 19 x 14 x 0
Date
Year ca.1450
Specified date
Argumentation
  • based on historical and/or technical research
  • based on historical evidence (in literature)
Specification year in which Jan Vos was appointed prior of Nieuwlicht
Additional remarks
Holding institution
Holding institution Berlin, Staatliche Museen
Collection Gemäldegalerie
Collection identifier 523B
Online description link
Alternative or previous collections
Alternative of previous identifiers
Accessibility
Remarks about holding institution
Contract
Contract
Artist(s)
Identity
Name Christus, Petrus
Attribution
  • style
Specification based on stylistic grounds
Assignment
Role
Specification
Additional remarks
Filiation
Filiation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Portraits

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait on the left
Portrait of
Name Jan Vos
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on literature or archival research
Specification resemblance to an older portrait
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing clothes of a member of a convent/religious order
Short description white scapular worn over a habit of the same colour
Attributes
Attributes
  • no general attributes
Specification
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks Jan Vos was a Carthusian monk and prior. In comparison with his portrait in the 'Rothschild Madonna', Vos looks older here.

Saint Portraits

Indication of the part
Indication of the part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait Behind or near the portrayed person(s)
Specification of saint
Name Barbara
Sex female
Type of saint
  • religious order
Specification Protection against sudden death and patron saint of soldiers. The Teutonic Order had military ties. Jan Vos was a member of the Teutonic Order before he entered the Carthusian Order.
Attributes
  • building constructions (parts of)
  • flowers/plants/trees (parts/products of)
Specification tower; palm branch
Gesture
  • hand on the shoulder or back of a commemorated person
  • holding one or more attributes in his/her hands
Specification
Posture standing
Specification right hand on the shoulder of Jan Vos
Additional remarks
Additional remarks The 'Rothschild Madonna' shows SS Barbara and Elizabeth of Hungary

Person Description

Personal identification number
Personal identification number 2571
Personal details
Name Jan Vos
Sex male
Year/date of birth
Year/date of death 1462
Additional remarks
Social standing
Status member of a convent/religious order
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
  • according to literature
Specification
Member of a convent
Religious order Carthusian
Specification a member of the Teutonic Order in Utrecht; monk of the Carthusian monastery Nieuwlicht outside Utrecht (1530s); prior of the Carthusian monastery Genadedal - or Val-de-Grâce - outside Bruges (1441); prior of the monastery Nieuwlicht (1450-1458)
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
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