Medieval Memoria Online

Description - Memorial Object

Virgin and Child Enthroned with devotional portraits of four lords of the De Rovere van Montfoort family

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MeMO memorial object ID and name
MeMO memorial object ID 505
Name Virgin and Child Enthroned with devotional portraits of four lords of the De Rovere van Montfoort family
Holding institution(s)
Holding institution(s)
  • Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Category
Type Memorial item (physical object)
Classification Single piece (painting)
Short description Painting showing the Virgin and Child Enthroned with devotional portraits, inscription, coats of arms and saint
Remarks about category Single piece: no separation between portrait(s) - main image
General date
General date 1375-1400
Artist(s)
Artist(s)
  • Utrecht area, artist from the
Original institution(s)
Original institution [706] Grote of St. Johannes de Doperkerk (St. Janskerk) (St John the Baptist's Church (St. Janskerk)), Linschoten
Arguments
  • based on research (literature, archival or archaeological research)
Specification Possible original institution: traditionally mentioned as original institution; the lords of Montfoort where buried in or near this church
Original institution [118] Grote of St. Janskerk (St John's Church (Grote Kerk)), Montfoort
Arguments
  • based on research (literature, archival or archaeological research)
Specification Possible original institution: the commemorated family had strong and old ties with this church
Still in original institution? no
Location inside the institution
In situ?
(Probable) original location
  • on an altar
Argumentation
Related memorial objects in the same institution
Additional remarks (original location)
Additional remarks • Linschoten: altar of the Virgin? • Montfoort: altar of the Virgin? According to a record of ca. 1583, the Montfoort church had a St George chantry (St George is depicted in the painting).
Memorial piece
Function
  • political
  • liturgical/religious
  • historical
  • social
Specification
Additional remarks
Memorial monument or floor slab
Function
Grave findings
Additional remarks
Original function memorial painting; commemorating a family; commemorating a historical event; political function?
Change in function
Remarks about function arguments for functions: memorial text on the painting; historical facts
Name four lords of the Van Montfoorde family (De Rovere van Montfoort family)
Specification
Members of the commemorated party
Commemorated person(s)
  • [768] Hendrik Roelofsz. de Rovere van Montfoort or Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort (male)
  • [767] Willem van Montfoorde (Willem de Rovere van Montfoort) (male)
  • [765] Jan van Montfoorde (Jan I de Rovere van Montfoort) (male)
  • [766] Roeloff van Montfoorde (Roelof de Rovere van Montfoort) (male)
Commemorated institution(s)
Relation between commemorated persons extended family
Relation specification Roelof was the great-uncle of Jan I and the uncle of Willem; Willem was the uncle of Jan I
Additional remarks arguments for identification of commemorated party: coats of arms and text on the painting
Name Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort?
Composition of the commissioning party
  • single person
Specification
Members of the commissioning party
Commissioning person(s)
  • [4308] Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort (male)
Commissioning Institution(s)
Relation between commissioning party and commemorated party The commissioning party belonged to the commemorated party and was a spouse and/or relative of the other member(s) of the commemorated party
Relation specification The commissioning party was a relative of the commemorated persons (nephew of Jan I) and was possibly one of the commemorated persons himself
Additional remarks The indirect occasion to commission the painting was the death of ancestors; three members of the De Rovere van Montfoort family had died in the battle of Warns (Stavoren) in 1345. The direct occasion is unknown. It is possible that Hendrik commissioned the work around 1400, when he - like his ancestors before him - went into battle to fight the Frisians (the Friso-Hollandic Wars took place with intervals in the 13th, 14th and 15th century during which the counts of Holland attempted to conquer the Frisian territories).
Material(s)
  • wood (panel)
Specification oil on oak
Traces of polychromy?
Reuse of older objects
Dimensions (cm)
Height x width x depth 69 x 143 x 0
Completeness Not the original frame
Condition In poor condition: much overpainting, discoloured varnish and paint losses
Conservation Restored in 1608, 1770 (mentioned in the inscription), 1886 (shortly after the painting was acquired by the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam) and in 1967
Technical research
  • X-ray
  • dating by dendrochronology
  • infrared reflectography (IRR)
Specification (technical research)
Alterations
Alterations
Specification
Additional remarks
Provenance
Provenance See literature: catalogue Centraal Museum, Utrecht (Utrecht 2011)
Marks of ownership
Type(s) of mark(s) of ownership
Specification
  • Boon, K.G., Netherlandish drawings of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries (The Hague 1978)
  • Bueren, T. van, Leven na de dood: gedenken in de late Middeleeuwen (Turnhout 1999), 231-232
  • Helmus, L.M.; Tamis, D.; Faries, M., Catalogue of Paintings, 1363-1600. Centraal Museum Utrecht (Utrecht 2011), 314-318; cat. no. 42
  • Ibelings, B., De opdrachtgever en oudst bekende restauratie van de memorietafel van de heren van Montfoort, Heemtijdinghen 48 (2012), 65-74, 65-74
  • Luttervelt, R. van, Jubileumtentoonstelling middeleeuwse kunst der Noordelijke Nederlanden (Amsterdam 1958), 39
  • Plomp, N., Een Linschotens schilderstuk uit de veertiende eeuw, Heemtijdinghen 13 (1977), 44-49, 44-49
  • Thiel, P.J.J. van, Alle schilderijen van het Rijksmuseum te Amsterdam: volledig geïllustreerde catalogus (Haarlem 1976), 651
Other documentation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks • This work is one of the two oldest surviving memorial paintings from the diocese of Utrecht. • The painting commemorates three members of the knightly De Rovere van Montfoort family who died in the Battle of Warns (Stavoren) on 26 September 1345. • The identity of the fourth knight - whose name is not mentioned in the inscription - has long been a matter of discussion among scholors. This fourth knight may also be the patron of the work. If Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort was the patron, then the painting served a commemorative as well as a political function, underlining the ties between the Van Montfoort family and the counts of Holland. • According to Van Bueren (1999), the blue and starry background refers to heaven as the home of the Virgin.

Single piece (front) of [505] Virgin and Child Enthroned with devotional portraits of four lords of the De Rovere van Montfoort family

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Short description
Short description Virgin and Child Enthroned with devotional portraits of four lords of the De Rovere van Montfoort family, inscription, four coats of arms and St George
Dimensions (cm)
Height x Width x Depth 69 x 143 x 0
Date
Year 1375-1400
Specified date
Argumentation
  • based on historical and/or technical research
  • date of death (from other sources)
Specification dendrochronology; date of death of Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort
Additional remarks dating by dendrochronology: most likely in or after 1376
Holding institution
Holding institution Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Collection Paintings
Collection identifier SK-A-831
Online description link
Alternative or previous collections
Alternative of previous identifiers
Accessibility
Remarks about holding institution
Contract
Contract
Artist(s)
Identity
Name Utrecht area, artist from the
Attribution
  • based on historical evidence (in literature)
Specification origin of work
Assignment
Role
Specification
Additional remarks
Filiation
Filiation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Portraits

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait first person from the left
Portrait of
Name Jan van Montfoorde (Jan I de Rovere van Montfoort)
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on text(s) on the memorial object
  • based on heraldry on the memorial object
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing aristocratic/noble attire
Short description suit of armour, tunic displaying the family coat of arms
Attributes
Attributes
  • sword
  • armour
Specification
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks This knight was a member of the De Rovere van Montfoort family. He died in the battle of Warns in 1345.
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait second person from the left
Portrait of
Name Roeloff van Montfoorde (Roelof de Rovere van Montfoort)
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on text(s) on the memorial object
  • based on heraldry on the memorial object
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing aristocratic/noble attire
Short description suit of armour, tunic displaying the family coat of arms
Attributes
Attributes
  • sword
  • armour
Specification
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks This knight was a member of the De Rovere van Montfoort family. He died in the battle of Warns in 1345.
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait third person from the left
Portrait of
Name Willem van Montfoorde (Willem de Rovere van Montfoort)
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on text(s) on the memorial object
  • based on heraldry on the memorial object
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal arms crossed in front of his chest
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing aristocratic/noble attire
Short description suit of armour, tunic displaying the family coat of arms
Attributes
Attributes
  • sword
  • armour
Specification
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks This knight was a member of the De Rovere van Montfoort family. He died in the battle of Warns in 1345.
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait fourth person from the left
Portrait of
Name Hendrik Roelofsz. de Rovere van Montfoort or Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on literature or archival research
  • based on heraldry on the memorial object
Specification historical fact(s)
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing aristocratic/noble attire
Short description suit of armour, tunic displaying the family coat of arms
Attributes
Attributes
  • sword
  • armour
Specification
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks The identity of this knight has not been determined. It is either Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort, the possible patron of the work, or Hendrik Roelofsz. de Rovere van Montfoort, son of the Roelof who died in the 1345 battle.

Heraldry

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of heraldry
Place of heraldry first coat of arms from the left
Specification of heraldry
Type of heraldry Personal use of family arms (one undivided shield)
Specification
Shape of the shield High gothic shield
Specification
Description of the shield In silver three red mill-rinds (2-1) - (In zilver drie rode molenijzers (2-1))
Description of the upper arms (helmet, crest and mantling) Crest: out of a crest-coronet a black cone topped with three ostrich feathers fanwise (Helmteken: uit een helmkroon een zwarte kegel en getopt met drie waaiersgewijs geplaatste struisveren)
Remarks
Additional parts of the achievement
Type of supporter
Specification
Motto
English translation of the motto
Insignia or attributes
Heraldry belonging to
Heraldry belonging to De Rovere van Montfoort
Person details
Person details
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of heraldry
Place of heraldry second coat of arms from the left
Specification of heraldry
Type of heraldry Personal use of family arms (one undivided shield)
Specification
Shape of the shield High gothic shield
Specification
Description of the shield In silver three red mill-rinds (2-1) - (In zilver drie rode molenijzers (2-1))
Description of the upper arms (helmet, crest and mantling) Crest: out of a crest-coronet a black cone topped with three ostrich feathers fanwise (Helmteken: uit een helmkroon een zwarte kegel en getopt met drie waaiersgewijs geplaatste struisveren)
Remarks
Additional parts of the achievement
Type of supporter
Specification
Motto
English translation of the motto
Insignia or attributes
Heraldry belonging to
Heraldry belonging to De Rovere van Montfoort
Person details
Person details
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of heraldry
Place of heraldry third coat of arms from the left
Specification of heraldry
Type of heraldry Personal use of family arms (one undivided shield)
Specification
Shape of the shield High gothic shield
Specification
Description of the shield In silver three red mill-rinds (2-1) - (In zilver drie rode molenijzers (2-1))
Description of the upper arms (helmet, crest and mantling) Crest: out of a crest-coronet a black cone topped with three ostrich feathers fanwise (Helmteken: uit een helmkroon een zwarte kegel en getopt met drie waaiersgewijs geplaatste struisveren)
Remarks
Additional parts of the achievement
Type of supporter
Specification
Motto
English translation of the motto
Insignia or attributes
Heraldry belonging to
Heraldry belonging to De Rovere van Montfoort
Person details
Person details
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of heraldry
Place of heraldry fourth coat of arms from the left
Specification of heraldry
Type of heraldry Personal use of family arms (one undivided shield)
Specification
Shape of the shield High gothic shield
Specification
Description of the shield In silver three red mill-rinds (2-1) - (In zilver drie rode molenijzers (2-1))
Description of the upper arms (helmet, crest and mantling) Crest: out of a crest-coronet a black cone topped with three ostrich feathers fanwise (Helmteken: uit een helmkroon een zwarte kegel en getopt met drie waaiersgewijs geplaatste struisveren)
Remarks
Additional parts of the achievement
Type of supporter
Specification
Motto
English translation of the motto
Insignia or attributes
Heraldry belonging to
Heraldry belonging to De Rovere van Montfoort
Person details
Person details
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Inscriptions

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the inscription
Place of the inscription at the bottom of the painting, below the image
Language(s)
Languages
  • Dutch
Language specification
Transcription
Transcription Int jaer ons heeren dusent drie hondert vijf en veertich op sante cosmas en damianus dach doe bleven doot op die vriezen bij grave willem van heynegouwen van hollant en van Zeland en heer van Vrieslant heer jan van Montfoorde heer roeloff van Montfoorde heer willem van Montfoorde met veel hare magen vrienden en onderhebbenden. Bidt voor haer allen zielen. dit is verlicht anno 1608; voor de derde maal verlicht 1770.
Translation
English translation
Dutch translation
Lay–out
Lay-out Gothic textualis
Inscription mentioning
Name [766] Roeloff van Montfoorde (Roelof de Rovere van Montfoort) (male)
Sex male
Argumentation the person is being commemorated
Name [765] Jan van Montfoorde (Jan I de Rovere van Montfoort) (male)
Sex male
Argumentation the person is being commemorated
Name [767] Willem van Montfoorde (Willem de Rovere van Montfoort) (male)
Sex male
Argumentation the person is being commemorated
Additional remarks
Additional remarks Memorial text including an appeal to the viewer for prayer for the commemorated person(s)

Saint Portraits

Indication of the part
Indication of the part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait First saint from the right
Specification of saint
Name George
Sex male
Type of saint
  • social status
Specification patron saint of nobility and knighthood
Attributes
  • trappings: clothing/attributes of nobility/soldiers
Specification suit of armour; sword; lance; shield and banner displaying St George's cross (in white a red cross)
Gesture
  • holding one or more attributes in his/her hands
  • hand on the shoulder or back of a commemorated person
Specification Hand on the shoulder/arm of the unidentified fourth knight. Depending on the identity of this knight, the pointing of St George can mean two things. 1. The saint supports Hendrik Roelofsz. de Rovere van Montfoort, who was seriously injured in the battle of Warns in 1345 but survived. St George had saved his life; 2. The saint acts as guardian of Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort, who was about to go fight in Friesland himself.
Posture standing
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Person Description

Personal identification number
Personal identification number 765
Personal details
Name Jan van Montfoorde (Jan I de Rovere van Montfoort)
Sex male
Year/date of birth ca.1318
Year/date of death 1345
Additional remarks Son of Hendrik I van Montfoort and Agnes van IJsselstein. Husband of Maria van Polanen, who was the daughter of Jan I, Lord of Polanen. The couple remained childless. Jan died in the battle of Warns in 1345.
Social standing
Status nobility
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
  • according to literature
  • identification of the person (portrayed, mentioned in text or owning the coat of arms)
Specification Viscount ('burggraaf') of Montfoort
Member of a convent
Religious order
Specification
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Personal identification number
Personal identification number 766
Personal details
Name Roeloff van Montfoorde (Roelof de Rovere van Montfoort)
Sex male
Year/date of birth
Year/date of death 1345
Additional remarks Son of Hendrik I van Montfoort. Brother of Sweder I, Viscount of Montfoort. Husband of Oda van Benthem. Father of Hendrik Roelofsz. de Rovere van Montfoort. Roelof died in the battle of Warns in 1345.
Social standing
Status nobility
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
  • according to literature
  • identification of the person (portrayed, mentioned in text or owning the coat of arms)
Specification Lord of Heulenstein
Member of a convent
Religious order
Specification
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks Roelof's will of 1342 has survived. It stipulates that he was to be buried in or near the St. Janskerk (St John the Baptist' s Church) in Linschoten. Roelof died on the battlefield, and it is unclear whether or not he was actually buried in the Linschoten church.
Personal identification number
Personal identification number 767
Personal details
Name Willem van Montfoorde (Willem de Rovere van Montfoort)
Sex male
Year/date of birth ca.1300
Year/date of death 1345
Additional remarks Son of Sweder I de Rovere van Montfoort and Catharina van Holland. Willlem died in the Battle of Warns in 1345.
Social standing
Status nobility
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
  • according to literature
  • identification of the person (portrayed, mentioned in text or owning the coat of arms)
Specification Lord of De Nesse
Member of a convent
Religious order
Specification
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Personal identification number
Personal identification number 768
Personal details
Name Hendrik Roelofsz. de Rovere van Montfoort or Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort
Sex male
Year/date of birth
Year/date of death ca.1360
Additional remarks • For information on Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort, see his Person Description. • Hendrik Roelofsz. was the son of Roelof de Rovere van Montfoort and Oda van Benthem. His father died in the battle of Warns in 1345. Hendrik fought in the same battle, was seriously wounded but survived.
Social standing
Status nobility
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
  • according to literature
Specification Hendrik Roelofsz. was Lord of Heulenstein; recorded as knight in 1350
Member of a convent
Religious order
Specification
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Personal identification number
Personal identification number 4308
Personal details
Name Hendrik III de Rovere van Montfoort
Sex male
Year/date of birth ca.1350
Year/date of death 1402
Additional remarks Son of Zweder II van Montfoort and Mechteld van Culemborg. Husband of Oede van de Lek, who was the daughter of Jan II, Lord of Polanen. On 28 May 1393, Hendrik was banished by Albrecht I - Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland - on suspicion of complicity in the murder of Willem Cuser and Aleid van Poelgeest. He and Albrecht eventually reconciled; between ca. 1396 and 1402 he fought beside the counts of Holland against the Frisians.
Social standing
Status citizen of city
Arguments
  • according to literature
Specification Viscount of Montfoort (since 1376); member of the council of the count of Blois (1380); feoffee of Linschoten (since ca.1383); feoffee of Heulenstein (since 1384); member of the council of Albrecht I.
Member of a convent
Religious order
Specification
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
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