Medieval Memoria Online

Description - Memorial Object

Visitation with devotional portraits of four male members of a convent

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MeMO memorial object ID and name
MeMO memorial object ID 563
Name Visitation with devotional portraits of four male members of a convent
Holding institution(s)
Holding institution(s)
  • Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Category
Type Memorial item (physical object)
Classification Single piece (painting)
Short description Painting showing the Visitation with devotional portraits, inscriptions and saints
Remarks about category Single piece: no separation between portrait(s) - main image
General date
General date 1475-1525
Artist(s)
Artist(s)
  • Spes Nostra, Master of the
Original institution(s)
Original institution [372] Mariënpoel, Regularissen (Marienpoel Monastery, Regular Canonesses), Oegstgeest
Arguments
  • based on research (literature, archival or archaeological research)
Specification Possible original institution. According to the necrologium of this convent, four of its rectors died around 1500.
Still in original institution? no
Location inside the institution
In situ?
(Probable) original location
Argumentation
Related memorial objects in the same institution
Additional remarks (original location)
Additional remarks The painting may have hung in the choir of the convent church, near the graves of the commemorated persons
Memorial piece
Function
  • liturgical/religious
  • social
Specification
Additional remarks
Memorial monument or floor slab
Function
Grave findings
Additional remarks
Original function memorial painting
Change in function
Remarks about function arguments for function: iconography of the painting (grave and skeleton); memorial text(s) on the painting
Name Johannes Crispiani (?), Gijsbert N. (?), Gerard Dirksz. (?) and Sebastiaan Fransz. (?)
Specification
Members of the commemorated party
Commemorated person(s)
  • [945] Johannes Crispiani (?) (male)
  • [946] Gijsbert N. (?) (male)
  • [947] Sebastiaan Fransz. (?) (male)
  • [948] Gerard Dirksz. (?) (male)
Commemorated institution(s)
Relation between commemorated persons members of a religious order
Relation specification four Canons Regular, possibly successive rectors of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden
Additional remarks
Name
Composition of the commissioning party
Specification
Members of the commissioning party
Commissioning person(s)
Commissioning Institution(s)
Relation between commissioning party and commemorated party
Relation specification
Additional remarks motive for commissioning the work: death of (one or more) commemorated person(s)?
Material(s)
  • wood (panel)
Specification oil on panel
Traces of polychromy?
Reuse of older objects
Dimensions (cm)
Height x width x depth 88 x 105 x 0
Completeness
Condition In overall poor condition
Conservation The painting was completely restored in 2006-2008
Technical research
  • dating by dendrochronology
  • X-ray
  • infrared reflectography (IRR)
Specification (technical research)
Alterations
Alterations
  • other
  • one or more effigies/portraits added
Specification • Technical research has revealed that the fourth portrait from the left was added slightly later. • In 1900 the skeleton was painted over with a white shroud, on which were placed a mitre, crosier and processional cross. This overpainting was removed in 1914.
Additional remarks
Provenance
Provenance ...; art dealer N. Steinmeyer, Cologne (ca. 1902); from art dealer F. Kleinberger, Paris, to the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (1907); on loan to Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (2004-2009)
Marks of ownership
Type(s) of mark(s) of ownership
Specification
  • Bangs, J.D., Cornelis Engebrechtsz.'s Leiden: studies in cultural history (Assen 1979), 23-24
  • Bueren, T. van, Leven na de dood: gedenken in de late Middeleeuwen (Turnhout 1999), 205
  • Bueren, T. van, Prayer and Politics. Circa 1500: memorial for deceased rectors?, http://www.cs.uu.nl/research/projects/i-cult/CLE/6Memoria/en/Main.htm
  • Filedt Kok, J.P., Four canons with Sts Augustine and Jerome by an open grave, with the Visitation , http://www.rijksmuseum.nl/collectie/zoeken/asset.jsp?id=SK-A-2312&lang=nl
  • Lammertse, F.; Giltaij, J., Vroege Hollanders, schilderkunst van de late Middeleeuwen (Rotterdam 2008), 287-290
  • Luttervelt, R. van, De herkomst van de Meester van de Virgo inter Virgines, Bulletin Museum Boymans 3 (1952), 57-71
  • Simons, R., Spes nostra of semper timoratum esse? Fluctuemus inter timorem et spem ( 1988)
  • Thiel, P.J.J. van, Alle schilderijen van het Rijksmuseum te Amsterdam: volledig geïllustreerde catalogus (Haarlem 1976), 637
  • Ubl, Matthias, ‘"The Office of the Dead": a New Interpretation of the Spes Nostra Painting’, The Rijksmuseum Bulletin 61 (2013), 322-337
Other documentation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks • According to Bangs (1979), the four Canons Regular can be identified as successive rectors of Mariënpoel convent who died shortly after each other around 1500, namely in 1496, 1496, 1504 and 1507. Initially, the memorial painting was made to commemorate the first three rectors. When shortly after the completion of the painting the fourth rector also died, another portrait was added to the work. • Besides Mariënpoel, scholars have suggested the following convents as possible original institution of the memorial painting: Our Lady of the Visitation just outside Haarlem and St. Hieronymusdal (or 'Lopsen') in Leiden. None of these suggestions can be supported by hard evidence. • Former titles of the painting: 'The Burial of a Patriarch' (in overpainted state) and 'Allegory of the Vanity of Human Life' (ca. 1914-1960).

Single piece (front) of [563] Visitation with devotional portraits of four male members of a convent

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Short description
Short description Visitation with devotional portraits of four male members of a convent, two inscriptions and SS Jerome and Augustine
Dimensions (cm)
Height x Width x Depth 88 x 105 x 0
Date
Year ca.1500
Specified date
Argumentation
  • based on stylistic research
  • based on historical and/or technical research
Specification date based on stylistic analysis; dendrochronology
Additional remarks dating by dendrochronology: most likely in or after 1495
Holding institution
Holding institution Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Collection Paintings
Collection identifier SK-A-2312
Online description link
Alternative or previous collections
Alternative of previous identifiers
Accessibility
Remarks about holding institution
Contract
Contract
Artist(s)
Identity
Name Spes Nostra, Master of the
Attribution
  • style
Specification attribution(s) on stylistic grounds
Assignment
Role
Specification
Additional remarks
Filiation
Filiation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Portraits

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait first person from the left
Portrait of
Name Johannes Crispiani (?)
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on literature or archival research
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing clothes of a member of a convent
Short description white habit
Attributes
Attributes
  • (ecclesiastical) vestments
Specification almuce covering the shoulders
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks The portrayed person was Canon Regular and possibly rector of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait second person from the left
Portrait of
Name Gijsbert N. (?)
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on literature or archival research
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing clothes of a member of a convent
Short description white habit
Attributes
Attributes
  • (ecclesiastical) vestments
Specification almuce covering the shoulders
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks The portrayed person was Canon Regular and possibly rector of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait first person from the right
Portrait of
Name Sebastiaan Fransz. (?)
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on literature or archival research
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing clothes of a member of a convent
Short description white habit
Attributes
Attributes
  • (ecclesiastical) vestments
Specification almuce covering the shoulders
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks • This portrait was added at a later stage. • The portrayed person was Canon Regular and possibly rector of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden.
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait second person from the right
Portrait of
Name Gerard Dirksz. (?)
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on literature or archival research
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing clothes of a member of a convent
Short description white habit
Attributes
Attributes
  • (ecclesiastical) vestments
Specification almuce covering the shoulders
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks The portrayed person was Canon Regular and possibly rector of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden

Inscriptions

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the inscription
Place of the inscription below the grave
Language(s)
Languages
  • Latin
Language specification
Transcription
Transcription Si quis eris qui transieris hac, respice, plora. / Sum quod eris, quod es ipse fui. Pro me, precor, ora.
Translation
English translation If there will be someone who passes by: behold and lament. I am what you shall be, what you are I have been. Pray for me, I beg you.
Dutch translation Als er iemand is die hier voorbijgaat: kijk en beklaag. Ik ben wat u zult zijn, wat u bent ben ik geweest. Bid voor mij, ik smeek u.
Lay–out
Lay-out Gothic textualis
Inscription mentioning
Additional remarks
Additional remarks Memorial text including an appeal to the viewer for prayer for the commemorated person(s)
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the inscription
Place of the inscription on the gravestone
Language(s)
Languages
  • Latin
Language specification
Transcription
Transcription Requiescant in pace.
Translation
English translation May they rest in peace.
Dutch translation Mogen zij in vrede rusten.
Lay–out
Lay-out Gothic textualis
Inscription mentioning
Additional remarks
Additional remarks Although names and dates of death are not mentioned in the inscription, the plural form "requiescant" indicates that it concerns a prayer for the salvation of the souls of the portrayed persons

Saint Portraits

Indication of the part
Indication of the part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait First saint from the left
Specification of saint
Name Jerome (Hieronymus)
Sex male
Type of saint
  • unknown
Specification
Attributes
  • animal(s) (parts/products of, incl. mythical creatures)
  • trappings: clothing/attributes of clergy/monks/nuns (incl. liturgical vestments)
Specification cross staff; cardinal's hat; lion
Gesture
  • hand on the shoulder or back of a commemorated person
  • holding one or more attributes in his/her hands
Specification
Posture standing
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Indication of the part
Indication of the part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait First saint from the right
Specification of saint
Name Augustine
Sex male
Type of saint
  • religious order
Specification He is the patron saint of Canons Regular, who follow the rule of St Augustine
Attributes
  • trappings: clothing/attributes of clergy/monks/nuns (incl. liturgical vestments)
  • body parts
Specification heart; crosier; cope; mitre
Gesture
  • holding one or more attributes in his/her hands
Specification
Posture standing
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Person Description

Personal identification number
Personal identification number 945
Personal details
Name Johannes Crispiani (?)
Sex male
Year/date of birth
Year/date of death 1496
Additional remarks
Social standing
Status member of a convent
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
Specification
Member of a convent
Religious order Canons Regular
Specification Canon Regular; rector of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Personal identification number
Personal identification number 946
Personal details
Name Gijsbert N. (?)
Sex male
Year/date of birth
Year/date of death 1496
Additional remarks
Social standing
Status member of a convent
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
Specification
Member of a convent
Religious order Canons Regular
Specification Canon Regular; rector of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Personal identification number
Personal identification number 947
Personal details
Name Sebastiaan Fransz. (?)
Sex male
Year/date of birth
Year/date of death 1507
Additional remarks
Social standing
Status member of a convent
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
Specification
Member of a convent
Religious order Canons Regular
Specification Canon Regular; rector of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Personal identification number
Personal identification number 948
Personal details
Name Gerard Dirksz. (?)
Sex male
Year/date of birth
Year/date of death 1504
Additional remarks
Social standing
Status member of a convent
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
Specification
Member of a convent
Religious order Canons Regular
Specification Canon Regular; rector of women's convent Mariënpoel in Oegstgeest near Leiden
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
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