Medieval Memoria Online

Description - Memorial Object

St Peter with devotional portraits of Petronella, Countess of Holland, and her son Dirk VI ('The Tympanum of Egmond')

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MeMO memorial object ID and name
MeMO memorial object ID 721
Name St Peter with devotional portraits of Petronella, Countess of Holland, and her son Dirk VI ('The Tympanum of Egmond')
Holding institution(s)
Holding institution(s)
  • Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Category
Type Memorial item (physical object)
Classification Single piece (sculpture)
Short description Sculpture showing St Peter with devotional portraits and inscriptions
Remarks about category Single piece: no separation between portrait(s) - main image
General date
General date 1100-1150
Artist(s)
Artist(s)
Original institution(s)
Original institution [282] Abdij Egmond, Benedictijnen (Egmond Abbey, Benedictines), Egmond Binnen
Arguments
  • based on research (literature, archival or archaeological research)
Specification historical fact(s)
Still in original institution? no
Location inside the institution
In situ?
(Probable) original location
Argumentation
Related memorial objects in the same institution
Additional remarks (original location)
Additional remarks The tympanum was placed above the west portal of the church. It remained in Egmond Abbey until the 19th century.
Memorial piece
Function
  • political
  • liturgical/religious
  • social
Specification commemorating a family; political function; commemorating a donation
Additional remarks
Memorial monument or floor slab
Function
Grave findings
Additional remarks
Original function The incised lines on the reverse of the tympanum indicate that the relief was cut from a rectangular slab of stone, possibly the lid of a sarcophagus
Change in function
Remarks about function The tympanum served as an expression of Petronella’s political views. She supported the Gregorian Reformations and the pope’s pursuit to subordinate all abbeys to the pope. She therefore changed her name from Geertruid to Petronella, after St Petronilla, the martyr who is considered to be the daughter of St Peter. The latter is also depicted on the tympanum. See Van Os (2000).
Name Petronella, Countess of Holland, and her son Dirk VI
Specification
Members of the commemorated party
Commemorated person(s)
  • [1621] Dirk VI, Count of Holland (male)
  • [1622] Petronella, Countess of Holland (female)
Commemorated institution(s)
Relation between commemorated persons nuclear family
Relation specification mother and son
Additional remarks argument for identification of commemorated party: text on the sculpture
Name Petronella, Countess of Holland
Composition of the commissioning party
  • single person
Specification
Members of the commissioning party
Commissioning person(s)
  • [1622] Petronella, Countess of Holland (female)
Commissioning Institution(s)
Relation between commissioning party and commemorated party The commissioning party was the commemorated party
Relation specification The commissioning party was a commemorated person herself and mother of the other commemorated person
Additional remarks
Material(s)
  • stone
Specification sandstone; metal; lead
Traces of polychromy?
Reuse of older objects
Dimensions (cm)
Height x width x depth 88 x 175 x 13
Completeness Original stone frame
Condition Break on the right-hand side and the nose of St Peter is missing
Conservation
Technical research
Specification (technical research)
Alterations
Alterations
Specification
Additional remarks
Provenance
Provenance See literature: Nederlandse kunst in het Rijksmuseum 1400-1600 (Amsterdam/Zwolle)
Marks of ownership
Type(s) of mark(s) of ownership
Specification
  • Filedt Kok, J.P.; Os, H. van, Nederlandse kunst in het Rijksmuseum 1400-1600 (Amsterdam/Zwolle 2000), 11-15
  • Hugenholtz, F.W.N.; Cordfunke, E.H.P., Gravin Petronilla van Holland, ca. 1082-1144: Holland in het begin van de 12e eeuw (Zutphen 1990)
  • Klomp, H.G.C.M., Het tympaan van Egmond: kunst als instrument voor propaganda, in: Vis, G.N.M.; Gumbert, J.P., Egmond tussen kerk en wereld (Hilversum 1993), 136-161
Other documentation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Single piece (front) of [721] St Peter with devotional portraits of Petronella, Countess of Holland, and her son Dirk VI ('The Tympanum of Egmond')

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Short description
Short description St Peter with devotional portraits of Petronella, Countess of Holland, and her son Dirk VI
Dimensions (cm)
Height x Width x Depth 88 x 175 x 13
Date
Year 1122-1132
Specified date
Argumentation
  • based on historical and/or technical research
Specification historical facts (reign of Petronella); widow's clothes (?) of Petronella
Additional remarks
Holding institution
Holding institution Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
Collection Sculpture & Applied Art
Collection identifier BK-NM-1914
Online description link
Alternative or previous collections
Alternative of previous identifiers
Accessibility
Remarks about holding institution
Contract
Contract
Artist(s)
Filiation
Filiation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Portraits

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait on the left
Portrait of
Name Dirk VI, Count of Holland
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on text(s) on the memorial object
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture in half-figure
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing
Short description jacket with a belt (?) around his waist
Attributes
Attributes
  • no general attributes
Specification
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait on the right
Portrait of
Name Petronella, Countess of Holland
Sex female
Argumentation
  • based on text(s) on the memorial object
Specification
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture in half-figure
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing
Short description cloak with a button, cap with lappets
Attributes
Attributes
  • no general attributes
Specification
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing Possibly the clothes of a widow
Additional remarks

Inscriptions

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the inscription
Place of the inscription top of the frame (arch)
Language(s)
Languages
  • Latin
Language specification
Transcription
Transcription Ianitor o celi, tibi pronum mente fideli / intromitte gregem, superum placans sibi regem.
Translation
English translation O gatekeeper of heaven, let this crowd, which kneels for you with faithful heart, come in and reconcile the king of celestials with them.
Dutch translation O deurwachter van de hemel, laat deze menigte, die met gelovig hart voor u knielt, binnenkomen en verzoen de koning der hemelingen met hen.
Lay–out
Lay-out
Inscription mentioning
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the inscription
Place of the inscription flanking St Peter
Language(s)
Languages
  • Latin/Greek
Language specification Greek
Transcription
Transcription Hagioos Peetrus
Translation
English translation Holy Peter
Dutch translation Heilige Petrus
Lay–out
Lay-out
Inscription mentioning
Additional remarks
Additional remarks The Greek is misspelt, with an omega - transcribed as oo - in place of an omikron in the first word, an eta - transcribed as ee - in place of an epsilon and an u in place of omikron in the second word. Read : Hagios Petros.
Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the inscription
Place of the inscription bottom of the frame (plinth)
Language(s)
Languages
  • Latin
Language specification
Transcription
Transcription Hic Thideric orat. Opus hoc Petronilla decorat.
Translation
English translation Here prays Dirk. Petronella has decorated this work.
Dutch translation Hier bidt Dirk. Petronella heeft dit werk versierd.
Lay–out
Lay-out
Inscription mentioning
Name [1622] Petronella, Countess of Holland (female)
Sex female
Argumentation
Name [1621] Dirk VI, Count of Holland (male)
Sex male
Argumentation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Person Description

Personal identification number
Personal identification number 1621
Personal details
Name Dirk VI, Count of Holland
Sex male
Year/date of birth ca.1114
Year/date of death 1157
Additional remarks Son of Floris II, Count of Holland, Petronella (Gertude) of Lorraine/Saxony. He had conflicts with his brother Floris 'the Black'. Husband of Sophie of Salm, Countess of Rheineck and Bentheim, with whom he had at least nine children. He and his wife went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1138.
Social standing
Status nobility
Arguments
  • according to literature
Specification Count of Holland after the death of his father (1122), at first under the regency of his mother Petronella (Dirk was seven years old when Floris II died)
Member of a convent
Religious order
Specification
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
Personal identification number
Personal identification number 1622
Personal details
Name Petronella, Countess of Holland
Sex female
Year/date of birth ca.1078
Year/date of death 1144
Additional remarks Daughter of Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine, and Hedwig of Formbach. Known as Gertrude of Lorraine or Gertrude of Saxony in the early stages of her later. Around 1100, she married Floris II, Count of Holland, on which occasion she may have changed her name to Petronella/Petronilla, after the martyr who is considered to be the daughter of St Peter. In this way, she showed her support for the Gregorian Reforms and her attachment to the Holy See. Petronella was mother of three sons, among whom Dirk VI and Floris 'the Black'. Founder of Rijnsburg Abbey (1133) and trustee ('voogd') of Egmond Abbey.
Social standing
Status nobility
Arguments
  • according to literature
Specification Countess of Holland (after her marriage); Regent of Holland for her son Dirk VI (after the death of Floris II in 1122)
Member of a convent
Religious order
Specification
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
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