Medieval Memoria Online

Description - Memorial Object

Virgin and Child with devotional portrait of Jan Vos ('Rothschild Madonna')

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MeMO memorial object ID and name
MeMO memorial object ID 921
Name Virgin and Child with devotional portrait of Jan Vos ('Rothschild Madonna')
Holding institution(s)
Holding institution(s)
  • New York City, The Frick Collection
Category
Type Memorial item (physical object)
Classification Single piece (painting)
Short description Painting showing the Virgin and Child with devotional portrait, inscription and saints
Remarks about category Single piece: no separation between portrait(s) - main image
General date
General date 1425-1450
Artist(s)
Artist(s)
  • Eyck, Jan van
Original institution(s)
Original institution [134] Nieuwlicht, Kartuizers (Bloemendaal) (Nieuwlicht Monastery, Carthusians (Bloemendaal)), Utrecht
Arguments
  • based on research (literature, archival or archaeological research)
Specification Originally located in Carthusian monastery Genadedal (Val-de-Grâce) outside Bruges, later transferred to Nieuwlicht (based on archival records of the Utrecht monastery)
Still in original institution? no
Location inside the institution
In situ?
(Probable) original location
  • on an altar
Argumentation
Related memorial objects in the same institution
Additional remarks (original location)
Additional remarks The painting was placed on the St Barbara Altar
Memorial piece
Function
  • liturgical/religious
Specification
Additional remarks
Memorial monument or floor slab
Function
Grave findings
Additional remarks
Original function altarpiece (in Nieuwlicht)
Change in function
Remarks about function argument for function: document(s)
Name Jan Vos
Specification
Members of the commemorated party
Commemorated person(s)
  • [2571] Jan Vos (male)
Commemorated institution(s)
Relation between commemorated persons no relation (only one person mentioned/depicted)
Relation specification
Additional remarks argument for identification of commemorated party: document(s)
Name
Composition of the commissioning party
Specification
Members of the commissioning party
Commissioning person(s)
Commissioning Institution(s)
Relation between commissioning party and commemorated party
Relation specification
Additional remarks
Material(s)
  • wood (panel)
Specification oil on panel
Traces of polychromy?
Reuse of older objects
Dimensions (cm)
Height x width x depth 47 x 61 x 0
Completeness complete
Condition
Conservation
Technical research
  • infrared reflectography (IRR)
Specification (technical research)
Alterations
Alterations
Specification
Additional remarks
Provenance
Provenance Baron James de Rothschild, Paris (ca.1850); Rothschild family (until 1952); Knoedler; Frick Collection, New York (since 1954)
Marks of ownership
Type(s) of mark(s) of ownership
Specification
  • Ainsworth, M.W., Petrus Christus: Renaissance master of Bruges (New York 1994), 72-78, 102-106
  • Scholtens, H.J.J., Jan van Eyck's 'H. Maagd met den Kartuizer' en de Exeter-Madonna te Berlijn, Oud-Holland 55 (1938), 49-62
  • Upton, J.M., Petrus Christus: his Place in Fifteenth-Century Flemish Painting (University Park 1990), 7-19
  • Weijert-Gutman, Rolf de, Schenken, begraven, gedenken. Lekenmemoria in het Utrechtse kartuizerklooster Nieuwlicht (1391-1580) (Utrecht 2015), 176-179
Other documentation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks • Jan Vos was prior of the Carthusian monastery Genadedal (Val-de-Grâce) outside Bruges, where this painting was located after its completion in ca. 1443. When, in 1450, Jan Vos was appointed prior of the Carthusian monastery Nieuwlicht outside Utrecht, he took the painting with him. • The Staatliche Museen in Berlin houses a painting with a devotional portrait of Jan Vos which bears a strong resemblance to his work. The so called 'Exeter Madonna' - see MeMO Memorial Object ID 3255 - is of a later date and was made by Bruges artist Petrus Christus. Scholtens suggests that it was made with the intention to replace the work that Jan Vos took with him to Utrecht. This, however, seems unlikely in view of the small size of the 'Exeter Madonna' (19x14 cm). It is more plausible that Jan Vos ordered the 'Exeter Madonna' from Petrus Christus when he was made prior of Nieuwlicht in 1450, and that the painting served as a private devotional piece or 'Andachtsbild'. Like the 'Rothschild Madonna', the 'Exeter Madonna' was probably transferred to Utrecht in 1450. (With thanks to Rolf de Weijert)

Single piece (front) of [921] Virgin and Child with devotional portrait of Jan Vos ('Rothschild Madonna')

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Short description
Short description Virgin and Child with devotional portrait of Jan Vos, inscription and SS Barbara and Elizabeth
Dimensions (cm)
Height x Width x Depth 47 x 61 x 0
Date
Year ca.1441-1443
Specified date
Argumentation
  • based on historical and/or technical research
Specification year in which Jan Vos was appointed prior of Genadedal (1441); year in which the painting was consecrated (1443, mentioned in documents)
Additional remarks
Holding institution
Holding institution New York City, The Frick Collection
Collection Paintings
Collection identifier 1954.1.161
Online description link
Alternative or previous collections
Alternative of previous identifiers
Accessibility
Remarks about holding institution
Contract
Contract
Artist(s)
Identity
Name Eyck, Jan van
Attribution
  • style
  • based on historical evidence (in literature)
Specification style
Assignment
Role
Specification
Additional remarks The underdrawing shows the style of Jan van Eyck; the painting was probably completed by another artist
Filiation
Filiation
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Portraits

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait on the left
Portrait of
Name Jan Vos
Sex male
Argumentation
  • based on literature or archival research
Specification document(s)
Portrait — portraiture
Physical state of the portrayed person alive
Argumentation
Specification
Posture kneeling
Manner of portrayal folded hands
Portrait — clothing, attributes and insignia
Clothing
Type of clothing clothes of a member of a convent
Short description white scapular worn over a habit of the same colour
Attributes
Attributes
  • no general attributes
Specification
Insignia
Insignia
Specification
Remarks about clothing
Additional remarks Jan Vos was a Carthusian monk and prior

Inscriptions

Indication of part
Indication of part Single piece (front)
Place of the inscription
Place of the inscription on the brocade canopy and hanging behind the Virgin (inscribed several times)
Language(s)
Languages
  • Latin
Language specification
Transcription
Transcription Ave Maria, gratia plena.
Translation
English translation Hail Mary, full of grace.
Dutch translation Wees gegroet Maria, vol van genade.
Lay–out
Lay-out
Inscription mentioning
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Saint Portraits

Indication of the part
Indication of the part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait First saint from the left
Specification of saint
Name Barbara
Sex female
Type of saint
  • religious order
Specification Protection against sudden death and patron saint of soldiers. The Teutonic Order had military ties. Jan Vos was a member of the Teutonic Order before he entered the Carthusian Order.
Attributes
  • building constructions (parts of)
  • flowers/plants/trees (parts/products of)
Specification palm branch; tower (in which a statue of Mars, the Roman god of war)
Gesture
  • holding one or more attributes in his/her hands
  • hand on the shoulder or back of a commemorated person
Specification right hand on the shoulder of Jan Vos
Posture standing
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks The 'Exeter Madonna' also shows St Barbara
Indication of the part
Indication of the part Single piece (front)
Place of the portrait
Place of the portrait First saint from the right
Specification of saint
Name Elizabeth of Hungary (Thuringia)
Sex female
Type of saint
  • religious order
Specification She was venerated within the Teutonic Order. Jan Vos was a member of the Teutonic Order before he entered the Carthusian Order.
Attributes
  • trappings: clothing/attributes/jewellery (miscellaneous)
Specification triple crown
Gesture
  • holding one or more attributes in his/her hands
Specification
Posture standing
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks

Person Description

Personal identification number
Personal identification number 2571
Personal details
Name Jan Vos
Sex male
Year/date of birth
Year/date of death 1462
Additional remarks
Social standing
Status member of a convent
Arguments
  • clothing of the portrayed person
  • according to literature
Specification
Member of a convent
Religious order Carthusian
Specification a member of the Teutonic Order in Utrecht; monk of the Carthusian monastery Nieuwlicht outside Utrecht (1530s); prior of the Carthusian monastery Genadedal - or Val-de-Grâce - outside Bruges (1441); prior of the monastery Nieuwlicht (1450-1458)
Member of secular clergy
Type of secular clergy
Specification
Additional remarks
Additional remarks
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